Category Archives: Film and TV

Planet Oil

I recently watched part one of the BBC Scotland documentary Planet Oil, presented by geologist Professor Iain Stewart. The programme considers the story of how oil completely changed our world. It created riches on a previously unimaginable scale. It led to technology that revolutionised our lives. It changed the outcome of wars, and sent the balance of global power into a tailspin. The programme covered so many great stories that I thought I’d share a few.

Up until the mid-19th century the world’s lamps were lit by whale oil. But collapsing whale populations meant the industry, and the whales, were under serious threat. A new source of oil was urgently needed. In 1853 an industrialist named George Bissell took a trip to Pennsylvania. He’d heard stories of the region’s strange oily puddles and wondered if they might provide a solution.

The oily puddles bubbled up from deep underground. Bissell realised he needed to drill down to reach the source. This wasn’t something anyone had attempted before, so new technology was required. He partnered up with a former railway conductor, Colonel Edward Drake, who possessed the necessary engineering skills. By 1859 they were ready, and on 27th August Drake struck oil. Being the first to person to do so, he was taken by surprise when the oil erupted with such ferocity that it sprayed high into the air. Not wanting to waste the precious material he frantically grabbed some old whiskey barrels he had lying around and began filling them with the oil. This chance action is the reason we still trade oil in barrels today.

Bissell and Drake refined the oil into kerosene, which could be used to light lamps. This new type of oil was rapidly adopted, making the men extremely wealthy. Their wealth soon attracted the keen interest of others. Within twelve months over seventy-five drilling rigs were operating in the area. Within another year the area was generating around one million barrels a year. The shocking speed with which this new industry grew couldn’t be better illustrated than by the story of the town Pithole.

The discovery of oil in one particular location resulted in people flocking there to drill it. Within six months a prosperous town had grown from nothing. The town, named Pithole, was replete with ten hotels and numerous saloons, but the oil quickly dried up and the town disappeared. The rise and subsequent demise of Pithole occurred so quickly that it never appeared on the US census. A census is taken every ten years. At the time of the 1860 census the town didn’t exist. Oil was discovered in 1865. But by the time of the next census, 1870, the oil had dried up and the town was deserted.

These rapid changes were owed to the huge wealth this new mineral could bring. And there’s no finer example of this than the story of John T Rockefeller. He’s known as an infamous philanthropist, but he was also a ruthless businessman. He nickname was the anaconda.

Rockefeller originally worked as a greengrocer, but he soon saw the attraction of oil. It was hard not to. Every dollar invested in oil drilling returned a thousand. In 1865 he invested all his savings in an oil refinery. He used the profits to build a second. With so many people drilling for oil there was a risk of oversupply, so Rockefeller decided to distinguish his product by going for quality. To underline this commitment he opted to name his oil Standard.

Rockefeller’s business grew quickly. He soon became the country’s biggest supplier, but he still wasn’t satisfied. To further tighten his grip on the industry he focused upon the supply chain. Oil was transported via the railways. The size of his company afforded him great power, which he used to entice railway operators into extremely biased deals. The deals meant the more oil a supplier shipped, the cheaper the shipping became. As he was the largest shipper, the deal favoured his company. He then went a step further and arranged a deal that actively penalised smaller distributors. This killed off competition allowing him to monopolise the industry. The result? Never before in the course of history had one man become so rich so quickly from a single resource. He became the richest man that had ever lived, amassing a fortune equivalent to ten times that of Bill Gates.

In the 1870s a British military industrialist named Robert Nobel arrived in Baku on the Caspian Sea. He was seeking wood to make rifles. But instead he found a black, barren landscape. Gas would belch from underground vents. Volcanoes of mud spluttered into the air while rivers of oil oozed along the sun-baked sand. In this strange alien landscape he saw rocks on fire. He also saw an opportunity.

With his brother he formed the Nobel Petroleum company. They knew there was a ready waiting market, eastwards. The problem was getting their oil there.

The journey over land was long and arduous. The sea option was quicker, but required access to the newly opened Suez Canal (which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea). But there was a problem, the clipper ships used to transport oil were deemed unsafe by the canal owners. They viewed wooden ships with thousands of oil barrels rolling around a dangerous prospect. The Nobel brothers needed a new design of ship.

The solution was found by the son of an English shell merchant, Marcus Samuel. His design is still in use today. It’s become one of the world’s most recognisable ships: the super tanker. Samuel then created his own oil company, Shell. Its name and logo was inspired by the shells his dad would sell. It soon became one of the world’s most recognisable brands.

Samuel’s new design of ship could carry twice as much oil and move it safely through the Suez Canal. This allowed the Nobel brothers to dominate the Asian market, much to Rockefeller’s frustration.

Drawn by the astonishing levels of potential riches many wells opened up across the world. But in their clamour to enrich themselves the new oil barons failed to notice the massive threat looming on the horizon: electricity.

In 1882 Edison flipped a switch. The switch sent electricity through wires which lit a series of streetlights across a London bridge. The world would never be the same again.

Towns and cities across the globe soon embraced this new technology. It wasn’t long before it was busy banishing darkness from inside people’s homes as well. Oil was made redundant almost overnight.

At that time oil only really had one use, and once that use had been supplanted the industry was obsolete. The oil barons needed a new use for their product. Conveniently, a German engineer was working on exactly that. Much like electric lights, his invention also completely revolutionised the world.

Oil reaches the surface in the form of crude oil. This is a mixture of numerous hydrocarbons (compounds of hydrogen and carbon). Only one molecule, kerosene, was used for lamps. By heating the raw oil the various types of hydrocarbons can be separated. This process, called distillation, causes the lighter molecules (such as propane) to evaporate first. As the temperature is increased the heavier molecules (such as kerosene) are separated out. This process generates many different products. One particular molecule was originally thrown away as a waste product. This made it the only fuel the German engineer, Carl Benz, could afford. So he designed his new internal combustion engine to run on it. The product was gasoline. Despite being initially considered worthless, a mere thimble full could perform the work of twenty horses. It wasn’t long before the world embraced Benz’s invention. And it wasn’t long before gasoline became oil’s most prized product.

Often the military is the first to embrace new technology. As was the case for gasoline. In 1911 Winston Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty. One of his immediate concerns was the German navy. Their ships ran on oil, whereas the British fleet ran on coal. Coal ships travelled at ten knots; oil ships travelled at twenty-five knots – clearly a massive advantage in a battle situation. Churchill soon set about converting Britain’s ships to oil. Fortunately his work was well underway when war broke out in 1914.

A month after war broke out an event took place that’s largely unknown outside of France. Paris was on the verge of being taken by the Kaiser. His forces were amassed only thirty miles from the city. Many considered the city’s fall inevitable. Most people, including the entire government, had already fled. But the city’s military general, Joseph Gallieni, was determined to save the city. Frontline troops were heavily outnumbered. Reinforcements were available, but stranded in Paris. The story goes that Gallieni was standing on a Parisian street when he saw a taxi go by, then another, then another. A thought occurred to him. What if he used these new, fast, gasoline-powered vehicles to take his troops to the frontline?

The call went out to all Parisian cab drivers to abandon their passengers and come to the army’s aid. What resulted is now referred to as the Taxi Armada. Six hundred taxis answered the call. Within twenty-four hours six thousand troops had been delivered to the frontline. Never in world history had so many people been transported so far so quickly. The Germans were pushed back; the city was saved. The age of motorised warfare had arrived, and the world was in no doubt as to where the future of transportation lay. Although, as an amusing side note, it’s claimed the taxis’ meters were still running during the mass exodus. Well, we’ve all got to earn a living…


Slashing the Odds of Success

Recently I found myself watching a fascinating documentary about a rock band from the 80s. One particular chapter of the story amazed me. It was the story of how close they came to total failure. In many ways, it reminded me of a story discussed in a previous post about the 90s alternative-rock band Blind Melon.

During the 80s LA was gripped by the atrocious hair metal scene. A famed A&R man named Tom Zutaut was driving through the city one day when he noticed a flyer stuck to a lamppost. It grabbed his attention as he thought it was the coolest flyer he’d ever seen. He pulled over, tore it down and vowed to attend the gig.

Due to some last minute changes he actually missed their set, but managed to find out when the next show was.

A month later, as he surveyed the crowd at the next gig, Zutaut noted numerous rival A&R guys in attendance. Word had got out that he was attending the show. Due to having already signed several successful bands, they were keen to see his reaction. He quickly concluded that he was watching the world’s next biggest band. He had to sign them. But, in order to put his rivals off the scent, he left after only a few songs. As he did so he dismissed the band as terrible and too loud.

He later contacted them and signed them to Geffen Records.

It took almost two years for them to finally put their debut album together. Unfortunately, it failed to live up to expectations. Due to their reputation as dangerous, rabble-rousers most radio stations refused to play them. MTV categorically refused to ever play anything by them. With little exposure, sales floundered.

After a year the album had only sold a disappointing 200,000 copies. These were mainly sold through gigging. The band were doing warm up duties for Alice Cooper and Motley Crue. In each new town they played they’d sell a few hundred records the next day.

After a disappointing year representatives from the Geffen Records informed Zutaut of some bad news. They were pulling the plug on the release. They felt it wasn’t going anywhere. Zutaut was astounded. In disbelief he told them “This album has only sold 200,000 copies. It’s going to sell millions.” But it was no use. The decision had been made.

In desperation Zutaut spoke to David Geffen and explained the predicament. “What can I do?” asked Geffen. Zutaut asked him to phone his friends at MTV and get them to change their mind. “Look, we’ve just made this really great video. Just get them to play it,” he pleaded.

A little while later Geffen called back. It wasn’t great news. MTV had reluctantly agreed to play the video, but there were two conditions. Firstly, they would play it in the middle of the night (around 4am New York time and 1am LA time). Secondly, they would only ever play it the once. That was it. The best they were willing to do.

Zutaut was left with the unenviable task of breaking the disastrous news to the band. Regardless, they took it in their stride and decided to throw a party in honour of the showing.

Due to the party, Zutaut didn’t awake until mid-afternoon. By that point his answering machine was jammed with messages. He phoned the office to find out what the commotion was about. He then rushed in to work and spoke to Geffen’s head of promotion – who was almost spitting with excitement.

The band had completely crashed MTV’s switchboards. Immediately after the showing tens of thousands of kids had begun phoning up and demanding that they play it again. The phone lines couldn’t handle the masses of traffic and “blew up”. MTV had never known anything like it; the lines remained jammed all throughout the next day. MTV eventually accepted the obvious truth and reluctantly agreed to playlist the song. It became an instant hit.

The album immediately skyrocketed up the charts. It went from selling 200,000 in a year to selling 100,000 every week. Their next single did even better. It reached number one in the mainstream charts. They were now being played on pop stations.

As Zutaut predicated, after having heard only a few songs, they soon became the biggest band in the world. In total, the album went on to sell over 30 million copies. The song was called Welcome to the Jungle. The album was called Appetite for Destruction, and the band was called Guns and Roses. And the original flyer that caught Zutaut’s attention and sparked it all was drawn by the band’s lead guitarist: Slash.

Life on the Ocean Wave

The control room’s atmosphere was suffocatingly tense. The command was sent. The room feel silent. Anxious glances and hopeful smiles were traded as several excruciating minutes slowly passed. The tension was finally broken by a gasp drawing the attention of the room’s nervous eyes. A reading began to scan across the large central screen. The news was good. The submarine’s engines had successfully fired. The room erupted with relieved cheers, whoops of joy and punches of the air.

Hugs were exchanged, and tears were wiped from disbelieving eyes. All those years of gruelling hard work had hinged upon this one moment. And now, the meticulous planning and endless testing, had proved its worth.

A second reading began to appear upon the central screen. Preliminary checks indicated that the submarine had survived its perilous journey. It was ready for its mission. Engine power was increased. The ballast tanks were opened. The hydroplanes were adjusted and the craft began to disappear beneath the icy waves.

Back in the command centre eager eyes studied the murky images sent back by the on-board cameras. The army of eyes stared intently as ghostly shapes and shadows loomed in and out of view.

The images depicted a bizarre, alien world unfamiliar to human eyes. No one could predict what these images might reveal. The submarine’s radar indicated the ocean floor was approaching. If there was life to be found, this was most likely where.

As the ocean floor rose up to greet the craft, the propellers began kicking up mud and silt that had lain undisturbed for millennia. As the clouds dissipated the crowded room stood silent and motionless. From the fading clouds shapes began to emerge. Gasps of shock accompanied sharp intakes of breath. As the image cleared it revealed a field of plant-like creatures attached to the ocean floor. The control room once again erupted into ecstatic cheers and excited screams. The unbridled jubilation was well-placed. The room, and the world watching, had just witnessed the most incredible discovery in human history: life, found by NASA, using a remotely controlled submarine a billion miles from earth exploring the freezing oceans of Saturn’s largest moon: Titan.

It’s astounding to think that the scene described above may actually take place within the next decade or so. There are several locations within our solar system, over than Earth, where liquid oceans exists. Any of these may contain life. These worlds, and their potential exploration, was the focus of the latest episode of the BBC’s flagship science programme, Horizon.

Titan is fifty percent larger than Earth’s moon. At -180C it’s clearly too cold to host liquid water, but there are still oceans. Oceans of liquid methane.

In 2005 a probe named Huygens descended through the dense, cloudy atmosphere to provide our first ever glimpse of Titan’s landscape. Previously, the moon had been shrouded in a dense, hazy atmosphere. Huygens revealed a landscape more Earth-like than had ever been seen before. The surface was covered in large bodies of open liquid oceans. There were rivers, coastlines, lakes and seas. The revelations inspired speculations that life may well inhabit those frigid oceans.

It would be life completely distinct from that on Earth, with a completely different chemistry. It would be an example of a second genesis, featuring lifeforms occupying branches of a second tree of life.

But it wasn’t just the landscape that revealed tantalising clues to Titan’s potential for life.

Life on Earth produces seasonal changes in carbon dioxide levels. It’s absorbed by plants during the summer and released again during winter. It was predicted that life on Titan might produce a similar seasonal pattern in hydrogen. If so, hydrogen levels would be significantly lower near the surface than higher in the atmosphere.

As Huygens descended it sent back some intriguing readings. Hydrogen levels remained steady until close to the surface, where they dropped abruptly. Could this be owed to the behaviour predicted? Or could there be another, more prosaic, reason?

The intriguing readings convinced NASA to assemble a team tasked with designing a craft capable of exploring Titan’s alien oceans. After much experimentation and exploration of computer models, they settled upon a submarine design capable of plumbing the frozen depths. If ongoing tests are successful, launch may be only a decade or so away. If life exists elsewhere in the Solar System, it’s thought this is our best chance of finding it.

Horizon also discussed Enceladus. Enceladus is Saturn’s sixth largest moon. The Cassini craft that carried the Huygens probe captured photographed of giant jets of water spraying out from between large cracks in the moon’s icy crust. We now know that, beneath this thick layer of ice, is a briny, water ocean 10km deep. It would be too dark for photosynthesis to take place. But evidence of geysers raises the possibility of life eking out an existence around hydrothermal vents, just like on Earth. There are several proposals vying for funding to investigate, with a scheduled launch date of 2021. Will they detect the tell-tale chemical signature of life?

Lastly, Horizon considered Ganymede. Ganymede is Jupiter’s, and indeed the Solar System’s, largest moon. Beneath its icy crust exists a vast, salty ocean containing more water than all of Earth’s oceans. Beneath the 150km of ice exists an ocean reaching down 100km. Ten times the depth of Earth’s oceans. A probe tasked with exploring Ganymede is scheduled to launch in 2022.

It’s astounding to consider the very real possibility that life could inhabit these alien worlds, lurking beneath those thick icy crusts or frigid methane seas. And it’s even more awe-inspiring to acknowledge that, if such life exists, it may be discovered within only a decade or so. What a time to live – whether on Earth or elsewhere.

Horizon: Oceans of the Solar System is currently available on the BBC iPlayer.

Citizen Kane/Red Dwarf 

Warning: This post contains spoilers of both the film Citizen Kane and the Red Dwarf episode Me2. 

A while back I decided to watch the infamous film Citizen Kane. It’s widely considered one of the greatest films ever made, and I’d never seen it before, so I decided to give it a whirl. 

The film was great. I enjoyed it immensely, but a few days later an amusing coincidence occurred. 

I’m a massive fan of the 90s British sitcom Red Dwarf. I know it’s not everyone’s cup of tea, but it’s certainly mine. For the uninitiated, it’s a sci-fi sitcom about a crew of four incompetents stranded deep in a space on a mining ship trying to make their way back to earth. I noticed that I had one of the DVDs in the disc tray of my PC. I hadn’t watched any for ages. It must have been sat in there for months. Anyway, I decided to enjoy a quick episode. It was the first series disc and for no particular reason I decided to watch the episode Me2. 

In one scene two of the characters (Lister and Cat) are relaxing in the ship’s on-board cinema when another of the characters (Rimmer) enters. Rimmer asks what they’re watching. They comment that they didn’t realise he was into films. Rimmer arrogantly claims that he’s actually very knowledgeable about films as he did a course on them in college. They then inform him that they were watching Citizen Kane. “That’s a bit of a coincidence,” I thought to myself. Rimmer then says “Ah, yes. I remember this. Yes, this is definitely Citizen Kane.” It then cuts to a shot of the screen; a cartoon is playing. Previously, I’d always guessed that Rimmer had mistaken the cartoons playing before the film, for the main feature (demonstrating that he was talking nonsense about being knowledgeable about films), but I wasn’t sure. After having seen the film only a few days before I was able to positively say that I was right. Citizen Kane is a black and white film and what was on the screen was a coloured cartoon. 

The next day I was thinking about this amusing coincidence. Of all the episodes I could have chosen to watch it just happened to be that one. Then the penny dropped. Citizen Kane is about a man who, on his deathbed, uttered the word “Rosebud” as his final word. The film follows a journalist visiting those who knew him in hope of uncovering why this was his last word. That particular Red Dwarf episode had a subplot about how Rimmer’s last words were gazpacho soup (Rimmer was a hologram who had died long before). Lister then spends the episode trying to find out why those were his last words. When I realised this I couldn’t believe the coincidence. I’d seen that episode so many times before but had no idea of the connection to the film. Clearly the writers were paying homage to the film and weaved the plot line into the story, but until I’d seen the film only a few days before I had no idea. 

As I thought further about this I realised that the connection runs deeper. The reason Rosebud was Kane’s last word was that it represented a crossroads in his life. An event happened that sent his life down a certain path; a path that he felt ruined his life. This was also the reason why Rimmer had said gazpacho soup. It transpired that Rimmer, who had always wanted the honour of becoming an officer, had finally been invited to the captain’s table. Gazpacho soup was served. He was unaware that gazpacho soup was meant to be served cold, so he chastised the waiter and made him take it away to heat it. The rest of the guests laughed at Rimmer for his ignorance and he felt humiliated. He was never again invited back to the captain’s table. He felt that it was this moment that stopped him from eventually becoming an officer. In truth, what stopped him from being an office was the fact that he was a dim-witted, backstabbing coward.  

Also, as Rimmer died he knocked a snow globe off a table causing it to smash on the floor. This was also taken from the film as Citizen Kane dropped a snow globe as he died and it also smashed. 

I found it funny that I’d seen that episode so many times, but the connection to Citizen Kane had always gone over my head. It wasn’t until I happened to watch the film and then happened to watch that particular episode a few days later that I realised.  

After looking the connection up, I discovered that the soup story was based on a real event. The two writers were invited to a big TV network dinner where gazpacho soup was served. They were puzzled by it being served cold and nearly sent it back, but hesitated and decided not to. When they later found out the truth they were glad for hesitating and avoiding a potentially embarrassing situation.  

Hmmm…now I’m wondering how many other references have gone over my head?